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You are here:Accueil > Les numéros spéciaux > Théologie

The articles (8)

Find here the articles of the booklet number 3 of the volume CXV (published in 2015)

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  • Abstract

    Ce bulletin présente des ouvrages parus récemment sur l’islam, qu’il s’agisse de publications sur ou d’auteurs de l’époque classique mais aussi d’essais abordant la question de l’islamisme, du rapport de l’islam au politique, du soufisme ou du dialogue interreligieux.

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    Les travaux de Mark Cohen ont mis en lumière la naissance du mythe andalou alors que l’image de l’Andalousie comme espace d’une convivence entre les trois religions monothéistes ne cesse de saturer les réseaux inter-religieux et la scène littéraire et cinématographique. Cette vision relève du rêve. Elle est une construction que l’on doit pour beaucoup aux orientalistes juifs du XIXe siècle. Elle est mobilisée aujourd’hui comme l’exemple de la possible conciliation entre l’islam et une certaine idée de la modernité véhiculée par les Lumières. L’essai d’Adrien Candiard n’a pas pour objectif de déconstruire le mythe, encore qu’il n’eût rien perdu à en mentionner l’histoire, mais à montrer comment l’Andalousie non idéalisée, non rêvée est porteuse d’un  enseignement  bien  plus  fécond  à  l’heure  des  « identités meurtrières » et de la montée inhérente des extrémismes religieux. En effet, pour le dominicain, membre de l’IDEO, « al-Andalus peut encore nous parler, avec fécondité, de notre monde, de notre époque. Et nous dire quelque chose de nouveau et de nécessaire » (p. 10). C’est la philosophie de la tolérance de Locke et l’épistémologie de Kant qui concentrent la pointe de sa critique. Candiard voit une rupture épistémologique, cause des crispations identitaires actuelles. En ayant limité les questions religieuses au champ d’une vérité possible, la philosophie des Lumières a opéré au divorce entre la foi et la raison, suscitant en retour fidéisme et fanatisme. Or, al-Andalus consacre à l’inverse la correspondance entre les affaires religieuses et la possibilité d’en rendre compte par la raison dans une quête de vérité définie, selon la formule que saint Thomas emprunte à Isaac Israeli Ben Salomon, comme adaequatio rei et intellectus. Les visées apologétiques des « intellectuels » des différentes religions étaient indéniables, mais tous prenaient au sérieux la nécessité de
    connaître les autres croyances. L’esprit de polémique était d’abord celui du débat où il s’agissait de réfuter par la raison les credos de leurs adversaires. Inversement, c’est par la raison qu’il convient de rendre compte de sa foi. Pour l’A., al-Andalus constitue donc bel et bien un modèle, celui où la raison permet de contrebalancer le piétisme et l’intolérance des religions.

  • Page number (beginning) 495
  • Page number (end) 507
  • Category Recension
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  • Abstract

    In his second book of Sentences, explaining the creation of the angels and men, Peter Lombard takes an original position: both were created in a state of first grace which assured the harmony of their functions and allowed them to “stand”, but did not allow them to “move their feet”, that is to say, to progress in the good and obtain final beatitude without a further grace. This formula is a possible interpretation of the thought of St Augustine on creation; it had a certain amount of success throughout the Middle Ages, even to the point of being passed on by St Thomas in the Summa Theologiae. This article proposes to retrace its history in the work of a few medieval theologians and asks whether it may have had more success than it would seem.

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  • Abstract

    Saint Thomas defines the sacramental character as "an ordination to the Divine worship according to the rite of Christian life." In this article, we take stock of the meaning of this phrase, which was used by the Second Vatican Council. In doing this, we use the Thomistic doctrine of religion and worship, which teaches that, in the case of the New Law, religion and worship essentially encompass the life of grace in its full extent. Since our worship is a participation in that of Christ, we recall what it means that Christ is Priest. Finally, we show that the sacramental character, according to Saint Thomas, is not a static reality but the source of a dynamism that is of Christ and conformed to Chirst. We look at how, in each sacrament that has a character, the Christian receives and communicates holy things in the unified exercise of thetria munera.

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  • Abstract

    Michael D. Torre has published a couple of books about Fr. Francisco Marín-Sola, o.p. According to the more recent one, a translation of the three famous articles by the Dominican about the nature of sufficient grace, a Thomist may consider such grace as a physical, efficient, but fallible premotion, which puts the human will on the way towards a difficult good act, but which man can resist or not. The previous one, his doctoral dissertation, is a defence of the doctrine of the Dominican according to which the divine permission of sin does not imply that sin will take place. Despite some criticism, Fr. Basil Valuet considers that it’s a stimulating thomistic kind of thought. 

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  • Abstract

    The Stoics and the Epicureans thought wrongly — with opposite goals — that chance could be an objection against divine providence. The latter, in the same way as later on the Darwinians would do, wrongly saw there a possible substitute for creative causality. This would be the case if chance could be considered first, which is impossible, and if it were to be considered, due to its irrational contingency, foreign to all intelligibility. But precisely mathematics have established the opposite, ever since the invention of the calculation of probabilities and, more recently, when the theory of “chaos” was elaborated, showing how nature combines in a subtle manner the regular and the indeterminate. Contemporary science more than ever makes apparent how chance is integrated into the intelligible order of the natural universe, and, far from compromising its intelligibility, can play a role therein, as St Thomas Aquinas had acknowledged.

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  • Abstract

    This brief study on divine immutability and the problem of suffering in God tries to take stock of a point disputed among theologians concerning the way in which to understand mercy and compassion in God. Without claiming to resolve this question which has been hotly debated over the last fifty years in the Catholic world, this paper would like to offer a few elements of analysis which are more or less correctly perceived in the present day discussion, in order to discover a more adequate response to what still remains a valid but inadequately expressed intuition.

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  • Abstract

    Marín-Sola’s original work on grace and predestination is translated and further defended by Michael Torre in his book Do Not Resist the Spirit’s Call: Francisco Marín-Sola on Sufficient Grace. Earlier Marín-Sola, and today, Torre, argue that the authentic teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas opposes the account of grace and freedom articulated by the Dominican theologians at the Congregatio de Auxiliis. However, the exegesis of St. Thomas’s teaching presented by Marín-Sola and Torre does not do justice to the delicate metaphysical analysis instrumental in Thomas’s theology of grace and predestination. Failure to understand primary distinctions made by St. Thomas Aquinas that later became ordinary teaching among Thomists leads these authors to err in their interpretation of Aquinas, to confuse proponents of the Thomistic tradition with the proponents of Jansenism, and to misconstrue the magisterial teaching of the Church.

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  • Page number (beginning) 509
  • Page number (end) 528
  • Category Correspondence